Critical geopolitics, the Shanghai cooperation organization and the sino-kazakh water agreements

cooperation and stagnation

Autores

  • Lucas Gualberto do Nascimento Universidade Goethe de Frankfurt

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36311/10.36311/1982-8004.2021.v14.n2.p59-72

Palavras-chave:

Critical geopolitics, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Chinese foreign policy, Central Asia

Resumo

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), previously known as the Shanghai Five, was formed in June 2001 as a security engagement organization. It is a highly influential organization in the Eurasian continent, and most Central Asian countries – Kazakhstan included - are members of SCO, as well as China.

In recent years, the Chinese water diplomacy towards Kazakhstan has advanced in different agreements that are shaping the patterns of water security in Central Asia. The Chinese strategic interest in the development of the scope of the SCO in this region has made Kazakh transboundary water issues to advance in negotiations. However, these agreements have been made in a bilateral scheme, which is considered relatively unequal towards Kazakh interests; therefore, in spite of the Kazakh efforts, the SCO so far has not turned into a water security organization.

This paper is going to analyze the current trends in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, as well as the Sino-Kazakh cooperation platform, especially regarding transboundary water resources. From the perspective of the critical geopolitics scholarship and its considerations regarding the concepts of hegemony and zones of influence, the idea that the Sino-Kazakh cooperation has advanced following Chinese interests is going to be defended. In conclusion, this paper states that due to the lack of interest regarding Chinese water diplomacy, and despite of Kazakh efforts, the SCO is not in the near future launching great initiatives regarding water security in the region, reinforcing the Chinese diplomacy of bilateral water agreements.

Recebido em 14/04/2021
Aprovado em 19/09/2021

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Biografia do Autor

Lucas Gualberto do Nascimento, Universidade Goethe de Frankfurt

Mestrando em Estudos Modernos do Leste Asiático, na Universidade Goethe de Frankfurt am Main, Alemanha. Bacharel em Relações Internacionais, pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Atualmente é pesquisador do Analytical Centre da BRICS Youth Energy Agency, vinculada ao Instituto Estatal de Relações Internacionais de Moscou (MGIMO). Fez intercâmbio acadêmico semestral na Universidade Autônoma de Madri (UAM), em 2016-2017. Atuou como membro do Grupo de Pesquisa da Política Internacional (GPPI), especializado no estudo do BRICS, e no grupo Responsabilidade do Estado, Uso da Força e o Bloco de Constitucionalidade do Direito Internacional, ambos da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), de 2015 a 2018. Foi integrante do Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação Tecnológica (PIBIT), em 2011-2012, pelo CEFET/RJ. Possui interesse e experiência nos seguintes temas: Política Externa Chinesa; BRICS; Economia Política Internacional; Estudos de População e Desenvolvimento; Direito Internacional Público.

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Publicado

2021-11-11

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