Atividades do corpo da paz nas grandes cidades da China: uma exceção à filosofia diplomática americana?

Autores

Palavras-chave:

Corpo da Paz, "Voluntários da Amizade EUA-China", Aculturação, Pragmatismo

Resumo

, as missões do Corpo da Paz na China foram vistas como uma exceção à regra da diplomacia americana, que se baseia em uma mentalidade pragmática. De maneira um tanto discreta, o Corpo da Paz vem operando na China, há quase 30 anos. Os voluntários têm feito contribuições significativas para o intercâmbio de pessoas entre a China e os Estados Unidos, através de suas próprias experiências de aculturação. Desde o desenvolvimento do caminho dos "Voluntários da Amizade EUA-China", na China, embora o Corpo da Paz tenha tentado desafiar a resistência do Congresso dos EUA, ele não conseguiu superar a política externa dos EUA. Os "Voluntários da Amizade EUA-China" foram estabelecidos devido à melhoria das relações bilaterais entre a China e os Estados Unidos e se desenvolveram porque poderiam ajudar os Estados Unidos a promover ainda mais as relações bilaterais. Entretanto, embora o Corpo da Paz afirme ser politicamente independente, ele deve interromper seu desenvolvimento, na China, quando o desenvolvimento do projeto entrar em conflito com a política americana em relação à China. Embora a maioria dos voluntários trabalhe em faculdades, nas grandes cidades, o ambiente de ajuste cultural para os voluntários do Corpo da Paz na China é relativamente único, na história do programa. Eles encontram diferenças culturais mais difíceis, enquanto experimentam substancialmente menos estresse aculturativo, na vida diária. A maioria dos voluntários do Corpo da Paz é capaz de encorajar intercâmbios culturais entre a China e os Estados Unidos, devido ao seu apoio ativo ao aprendizado cultural. Descobriu-se que não há diferenças significativas entre as atividades do Corpo da Paz na China e as de outros países, depois de se examinar o histórico de desenvolvimento do projeto, na China. O Corpo da Paz não é uma exceção à abordagem americana da diplomacia, a qual é pragmática.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Long Ye Ye, Shaoguan University

Ph. D. School of Foreign Studies, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan, 512005 - China. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8989-0550.

Zhihua Liao, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics

Ph. D. School of Foreign Languages and International Business, Guangdong Songshan Polytechnic, Shaoguan, 512126 - China. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4308-4668.

Referências

ASIAEXPERTSFORUM. Michael Meyer On The End of The Peace Corps Program In China. AEF. 2021. Available in: https://asiaexpertsforum.org/michael-meyer-end-peace-corps-program-china/. Access in: June, 8th, 2023.

BELOHLAVEK, J. M. Politics, Principle, and Pragmatism in the Early Republic: Thomas Jefferson and the Quest for American Empire. Diplomatic History, v. 15, p. 599-606, 1991.

BERRY, W. J. Stress Perspectives on Acculturation. The Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

CAO, D. A Text Analysis of 70-year English Language Education Policy: From the Perspective of National Interests. Journal of National Academy of Education Administration, v. 12, p. 9-17, 2019.

CHENG, R.; ZHAO, X. On the impact of the Korean War on China US relations. Journal of Shanxi University (Philosophy and Social Science Edition), v. 2, p. 94-99, 1993.

COFFMAN, M. Letter to Members of US Congress - Suspend Peace Corps in People’s Republic of China. Vote Smart, 2011. Available in: https://votesmart.org/public-statement/635463/letter-to-members-of-us-congress-suspend-peace-corps-in-peoples-republic-of-china#.XjGIl2XRGr5. Access in: April, 15th, 2020.

CONGRESS. 2320-Peace Corps Mission Accountability Act. U.S. Congress, 2019. Available in: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/2320/text. Access in: April, 15th, 2020.

DAI, W.; HU, W. Research on the Development of Foreign Language Education in China (1949-2009). Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education, 2009.

FURNHAM, A.; BOCHNER, S. Social Difficulty in a Foreign Culture: an Empirical Analysis of Culture Shock. In: BOCHNER, S. Cultures in Contact: Studies in Cross-cultural Interactions. Oxford: Pergamon, 1982. p. 161-198.

HALL, T. E. Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday, 1976.

HESSLER, P. River Town: Two Years on the Yangtze. New York: Harper Perennial, 2002.

HIRSCHOFF, M. P. Suspect no longer, the Peace Corps gears up for China. First volunteers will teach English in small towns and remote areas. Christian Monitor, 1988. Available in: https://www.csmonitor.com/1988/0628/acorp.html. Access in: September, 13th, 2019.

HOFSTEDE, G. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations across Nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2001.

IGOE, M. Peace Corps’ China Withdrawal Highlights the Fight for Independence. Devex, 2020. Available in: https://www.google.com.hk/amp/s/www.devex.com/news/peace-corps-china-withdrawal-highlights-fight-for-independence-96385/amp. Access in: April, 21th, 2020.

JACOBSON, L. President’s Budget Continues to Lower the Trendline for Peace Corps Founding. Politifact, 2010. Available in: https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/obameter/promise/221/double-the-peace-corps/. Access in: September, 13th, 2019.

JULIUS, A. A. The United States Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Guinea. South African Journal of International Affairs, v. 5, p. 113-127, 1997.

LEIBOWITZ, E. Hello World!-Two Years in Peace Corps China. Nihaoshijie, 2015. Available in: https://nihaoshijie.tumblr.com/post/125262165167/digging-a-hole. Access in: September, 13th, 2019.

LEVY, M. Kosher Chinese. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2011.

LIU, F. The Strengthening of the US Competition with China and the Future Trend of China-US Relations. China International Studies, v. 1, p. 79-99, 2016.

LOVELACE, B. Cramer: Picking Pompeo as Top US Diplomat Sends a Message to China-You Are Our Enemy. CNBC. 2018. Available in: https://www.google.com.hk/amp/s/www.cnbc.com/amp/2018/03/13/cramer-picking-pompeo-as-top-us-diplomat-sends-stern-message-to-china.html. Access in: April, 11th, 2020.

MCCALLUM, L. Foreigner! Forever. from Albritton Jane, Even the Smallest Crab Has Teeth. Palo Alto: Solas House, 2011.

MCLAREN, C. M. Interpreting Cultural Differences: The Challenge of Intercultural Communication. Dereham Norfolk: Peter Francis, 1998.

MEYER, M. The Road to Sleeping Dragon. New York: Bloomsbury, 2017.

MILATOVIC-OVADIA, M. Shakespeare’s Fools A Piece in a Peacebuilding Mosaic. Critical Survey, v. 31, n. 4, p. 29-41, 2019.

PEACE CORPS. Peace Corps Congressional Presentation Fiscal Year 1991. Washington, D.C.: Peace Corps, 1991.

PEACE CORPS. Accord Reached During Presidential Visit. China Sign Peace Corps Agreement, 1998. Available in: https://www.peacecorps.gov/news/library/us-and-china-sign-peace-corps-agreement-accord-reached-during-presidential-visit/?_ga=2.263672265.479086422.1580788452-406549526.1513172990. Access in: April, 12th, 2020.

PEACE CORPS. Peace Corps Sending 48 Volunteer Teachers to China, Program Restarted after SARS Outbreaks Contained. Retrieved from Peace Corps Online, 2004. Available in: http://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/messages/467/2022579.html. Access in: September, 13th, 2019.

PEACE CORPS. Peace Corps Volunteer 2009 Annual Volunteer Survey: China. Washington, D.C.: Office of Strategic Information, Research and Planning, 2009.

PEACE CORPS. Peace Corps Volunteer 2010 Annual Volunteer Survey: China. Washington, D.C.: Office of Strategic In-formation, Research and Planning, 2010a.

PEACE CORPS. Peace Corps Volunteer 2010 Annual Volunteer Survey: Global Results. Washington, D. C.: Office of Strategic Information, Research and Planning, 2010b.

PEACE CORPS. Final Report on the Program Evaluation of Peace Corps/China. 2012. Available in: https://files.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/policies/PC_China_Final_Evaluation_Report_IG1204E.pdf. Access in: September, 13th, 2019.

PEACE CORPS. The Peace Corps Welcomes You to China - A Peace Corps Publication for New Volunteers. Washington, D.C: Peace Corps, 2013.

PEACE CORPS. Chinese Language Mandarin: Chinese Basic Lessons for Invitees, Peace Corps/China. Peace Corps, 2017. Available in: https://files.peacecorps.gov/uploads/wws/lesson-plans/files/CN_Mandarin_Language_Lessons.pdf?_ga=2.242120263.479086422.1580788452-406549526.1513172990. Access in: September 15th, 2019.

PEACE CORPS. U.S.-China Friendship Volunteers Annual Reports 2017. 2018. Available in: https://www.peacecorps.gov/china/about/. Access in: September, 13th, 2019.

PEACE CORPS. U.S-China Friendship Volunteers Annual Report 2018. 2019a. Available in: https://s3.amazonaws.com/files.peacecorps.gov/documents/ANNUAL_REPORT_2018_PDF.pdf. Access in: September, 13th, 2019.

PEACE CORPS. President Trump Recommends $14 Million Founding Cut for Peace Corps. National Peace Corps Association, 2019b. Available in: https://www.peacecorpsconnect.org/articles/president-trump-recommends--funding-cut-for-peace-corps. Access in: April, 11th, 2020.

PEACE CORPS. China: About. Peace Corps, 2020. Available in: https://www.peacecorps.gov/china/about/. Access in: September, 13th, 2019.

RALSTON, S. J. Obama's pragmatism in international affairs. Contemporary Pragmatism, v. 8, p. 81-98, 2011.

REN, X.; LIU, H. Theory and Practice of China’s Foreign Aid. Shanghai: Gezhi; Shanghai People’s, 2017.

RICE, T. G. The Bold Experiment: JFK’s Peace Corps. Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985.

RUBIO, M. Rubio Statement on Peace Corps’ Withdraw from China. Marco Rubio US Senator for Florida, 2020. Available in: https://www.rubio.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/2020/1/rubio-statement-on-peace-corps-withdrawal-from-china. Access in: April, 12th, 2020.

SCOTT, R. Sen. Rick Scott to Peace Corps: Get out of China Now. Retrieved from Senator Rick Scott, 2019. Available in: https://www.rickscott.senate.gov/sen-rick-scott-peace-corps-get-out-china-now. Access in: April, 12th, 2020.

SOMANADER, T. Declares War on Peace Corps, Demands End to Program in China. Think Progress, 2012. Available in: https://www.google.com.hk/amp/s/thinkprogress.org/gop-rep-declares-war-on-peace-corps-demands-end-to-program-in-china-603bab377b9a/amp/. Access in: April, 12th, 2020.

TAPSCOTT, M. S. Scott: Why Does Peace Corps Spend Millions in China? The Epoch Times, 2019. Available in: https://www.google.com.hk/amp/s/www.theepochtimes.com/sen-scott-why-does-the-peace-corps-spend-millions-in-china_3002045.html/amp. Access in: April, 12th, 2020.

ZHAO, P.; LI, X.; GUO, Y. The adjustment of US-China Policy after the Cold War and the Trend of China-US Relations. Journal of China Foreign Affairs University, v. 3, p. 15-19, 1996.

Received: 28/04/2023 - Approved: 28/06/2023 - Published: 13/11/2023

Publicado

2023-11-13

Como Citar

Ye, L., & Zhihua. (2023). Atividades do corpo da paz nas grandes cidades da China: uma exceção à filosofia diplomática americana?. TRANS/FORM/AÇÃO: Revista De Filosofia Da Unesp, 47(3), e0240030. Recuperado de https://revistas.marilia.unesp.br/index.php/transformacao/article/view/14518

Edição

Seção

Artigos