Risk of cardiovascular disease in soccer referees: a cross sectional study


  • Marcelo Ferreira a Departamento de Medicina, UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
  • Celso Ferreira a Departamento de Medicina, UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
  • Luiz Carlos de Abreu b Laboratório de Delineamento e Escrita Científica, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil.




soccer referees, athletes, electrocardiogram, sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular risk factors, myocardium protection


Introducrion: although the mortality rate among soccer players is low, it causes much impact on the entire community and is a fascinating conundrum.
Objetive: to evaluate the cardiovascular risk of soccer referees, to describe the frequency of cardiovascular risk considering age groups younger and older than 35 years old and to relate the Framingham and PROCAM indices for the comparison of cardiovascular risk in soccer referees.
Methods: We analyzed 50 referees of Paulista Soccer Federation subjected to clinical and laboratory based evaluations at the Center for Sports Health at the Faculty of Medicine of ABC, and were divided into two groups: lower and higher than 35 years of age. For analysis involving all variables of the study it was initially carried out as a descriptive evaluation of the entire group, and then the Framingham and PROCAM methods were applied in a two-dimensional way. Finally, the logistic regression analysis was applied. Anthropometric statistics, blood pressure, laboratory tests and ergospirometric values were within normal limits.
Results: referees older than 35 years old presented significant increased values of waist circumference, body mass index, glucose blood levels, lower VO2max and higher cardiovascular risk according to Framingham and PROCAM.
Conclusion: the risk for coronary heart disease was higher in referees older than 35 years old.


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