Journal of Human Growth and Development 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Luiz Carlos de Abreu Open Journal Systems <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">É um periódico científico de publicação contínua de volumes anuais cuja missão é divulgar a produção científica em Ciências da Saúde e áreas correlatas, objetivando contribuir com a discussão e o desenvolvimento do conhecimento em torno da problemática do crescimento e desenvolvimento humano.<br /><strong>JHGD</strong><br /><strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2175-3598<br /><strong>ISSN (printed):</strong> 0104-1282<br /><strong>Foundation year:</strong> 1991<br /><strong>Frequency:</strong> Four-monthly<br /><strong>Responsible editor:</strong> Luiz Carlos de Abreu<br /><strong>Institutional email:</strong><br /><strong>Indexers:</strong> LATINDEX, CLASE, ProQuest, DOAJ, EBSCO, Google Scholar, CrossRef, Scopus, LILACS, SSOA, Psi Periodical Index, DRJI, PEPSIC, Copernicus Publications</span></span></p> Overview on the recommendations for breastfeeding and COVID-19 2020-10-09T10:44:36-03:00 Helaine Jacinta Salvador Mocelin Cândida Caniçali Primo Mariana Rabello Laignier <p>Introduction: Human infection caused by the new Coronavirus is a public health emergency of international importance, whose clinical spectrum ranges from mild symptoms to severe acute respiratory syndrome. However, there is weak information about the clinical presentations of Coronavirus in newborns and children.</p> <p>Objective: To describe the recommendations about breastfeeding during SARS-CoV-2 infection.</p> <p>Methods: Scope review study.</p> <p>Results: The discussion on viral transmission through breastfeeding is controversial and the recommendations vary according to experts of different countries.</p> <p>Conclusion: The scientific knowledge currently available does not allow to accurately inform the best conduct in the breastfeeding process, making each country decide the strategy that best adapts to its reality. Implications for the practice: It is important that the health team has a close eye to identify atypical signs and symptoms during this process to act preventively in the face of possible complications.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Helaine Jacinta Salvador Mocelin, Cândida Caniçali Primo, Mariana Rabello Laignier Trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the World, between 2019 - 2020 2020-10-09T11:41:20-03:00 Henrique de Moraes Bernal Carlos Eduardo Siqueira Fernando Adami Edige Felipe de Sousa Santos <p>Introduction: CoV infections can potentially cause from a simple cold to a severe respiratory syndrome, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). The COVID-19 created a new reality for global healthcare models.</p> <p>Objetive: To evaluate trends in case fatality rates of COVID-19 in the World.</p> <p>Methods: We conducted a population based time-series study using public and official data of cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Peru, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Russian, between December, 2019 and August, 2020. Data were based on reports from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. COVID-19 was defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (U07.1). A Prais-Winsten regression model was performed and the Daily Percentage Change (DPC) calculated determine rates as increasing, decreasing or flat.</p> <p>Results: During the study period, trends in case-fatality rates in the world were flat (DPC = 0.3; CI 95% [-0.2: 0.7]; p = 0.225). In Africa, Morocco had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.1; CI 95% [-1.5: -0.7]; p &lt; 0.001), whereas it were increasing in South Africa (p &lt; 0.05) and flat in Nigeria (p &gt; 0.05). In the Americas, Argentina showed a decreasing trend in case-fatality rates (DPC = -0.6; CI 95% [-1.1: -0.2]; p = 0.005), the U.S. had flat trends (p &gt; 0.05) and all other American countries had increasing trends (p &lt; 0.05). In Asia, Iran had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.5; CI 95% [-2.6 : -0.2]; p = 0.019); China and Saudi Arabia showed increasing trends (p &lt; 0.05), while in India, Japan and South Korea they were flat (p &gt; 0.05). European countries had mostly increasing trends (p &lt; 0.05): Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and Russia; France and Switzerland had flat trends (p &gt; 0.05). Finally, in Oceania, trends in case-fatality rates were flat in Australia (p &gt; 0.05) and increasing in New Zealand (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion: Trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the World were flat between December, 31 and August, 31. Argentina, Iran and Morocco were the only countries with decreasing trends. On the other hand, South Africa, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, China, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, Russian and New Zealand had increasing trends in case-fatality rate. All the other countries analyzed had flat trends. Based on case-fatality rate data, our study supports that COVID-19 pandemic is still in progress worldwide.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Henrique de Moraes Bernal, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira, Fernando Adami, Edige Felipe de Sousa Santos Preconception Care to Improve Pregnancy Outcomes: The Science 2020-10-09T12:15:25-03:00 Hani Atrash Brian Jack <p>Introduction: In the last decades, improvements in the care of pregnancy and child development have been observed worldwide. However, pregnancy problems remain high in most countries. There was a concentration of care in the prenatal period as the primary approach for improving pregnancy results. Currently, attention to the care of pregnant women, women who have recently given birth, and newborns are focused on the care of preconception to improve the results of pregnancy and improve the outcomes of child growth and development.</p> <p>Objective: Describe the evidence for preconception care (PCC) and information to the health care provider, as well as describe instruments to present health care providers with PCC, its definition, its components, recommended interventions, and the scientific basis for recommendations.</p> <p>Methods: There was a search for published and unpublished literature related to scientific evidence for the effectiveness of PCC in improving pregnancy results. The search was carried out based on Pubmed and using data scraping techniques, in the material available on the internet and disseminated by international organizations, such as the World Health Organization and reports by government agencies.</p> <p>Results: It is reported that the literature on the scientific basis for PCC is fragmented, and most publications discuss evidence of one or a few interventions, with the majority of reports considering PCC for specific populations, such as women with chronic health problems and couples with infertility. However, these publications do not offer a realistic view of the proposed PCC interventions, with the scientific evidence that supports them. The general aspects of the existing literature and the recommended preconceived care interventions are described, together with the quality of the scientific evidence and the strength of the recommendations behind each of these interventions.</p> <p>Conclusion: Many clinical interventions have been identified that could be offered to women before conception to help avoid adverse outcomes. Most of these interventions have scientific evidence to support their role in improving pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, it is recommended that clinical care providers incorporate evidence-based prejudice services in their daily care of women of reproductive age, in an effort to improve women’s health before and during pregnancy, as well as improve pregnancy outcomes for women and their children.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hani Atrash, Brian Jack Screen time above recommendations in children and adolescents: analysis of the associated nutritional, behavioral and parental factors 2020-10-09T15:08:54-03:00 Sonimar de Souza Kelin Cristina Marques Cézane Priscila Reuter <p>Introduction: Sedentary routines characterised by multimedia games favour an increase in the prevalence of obesity in schoolchildren and their parents. Thus, identifying the factors associated with screen time during childhood and adolescence is essential for the development of public health strategies.</p> <p>Objective: To analyse whether excessive time in front of screens in children and adolescents is associated with nutritional, behavioural and parental factors.</p> <p>Methods: Cross-sectional study on 795 schoolchildren, of which 354 were male, aged between 7 and 17 years, and their parents (father or mother) from a municipality in southern Brazil. The screen time spent by the students was self-reported, obtained in hours, considering excessive to be ≥ 2 hours a day. The parents’ nutritional profile was assessed in terms of body mass index (BMI). For the data analysis, the prevalence ratio (PR) was used and analysed using the Poisson regression, with 95% confidence intervals (CI).</p> <p>Results: We found a high frequency of overweight/obese students (30.9%), with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (53.7%), who spend ≥ 2 hours daily on the TV, computer or video games (57.1%). Screen time was associated with the prevalence of being overweight (PR = 1.06; CI = 1.00-1.13) and obesity (PR = 1.10; CI =: 1.03-1.18) among fathers, only among adolescents.</p> <p>Conclusion: Excessive screen time among adolescents was associated with the father’s nutritional status. It is suggested that strategies to reduce screen time should be implemented from childhood, involving the entire family.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sonimar de Souza, Kelin Cristina Marques, Cézane Priscila Reuter Performance profile of reading and metalinguistic skills in students with dyslexia, learning difficulties and learning disorders 2020-10-09T15:39:45-03:00 Bianca dos Santos Simone Aparecida Capellini <p>Introduction: The reading process involves several cognitive skills, such as metalinguistic skills and memory. These processes lead the student to understand the ideas of a text for the creation of mental models, based on the context and your point of view.</p> <p>Objective: To analyze the performance of metalinguistic and reading skills in students with dyslexia, learning difficulties, and learning disorders.</p> <p>Methods: This is an observational and cross-sectional study. The group comprised 80 students from the 3rd to the 5th year of elementary, both gender, aged between eight and ten years and 11 months. The sample, distributed in four groups as follows: Group I composed of 20 students with an interdisciplinary diagnosis of dyslexia, Group II make up of 20 students with a multidisciplinary diagnosis of learning disorders, Group III by 20 students with learning difficulties and Group IV comprised 20 students with excellent academic performance. Every student, individually, underwent the application of the Metalinguistic and Reading Skills Tests Protocol.</p> <p>Results: The Groups I and II had more errors than Group III and IV. Group III showed a higher number of mistakes than Group IV. Scores were obtained from the metalinguistic tests, word reading and pseudowords, and repetition of no -monosyllable and polysyllable words.</p> <p>Conclusion: Students with dyslexia and learning disorders had a higher number of mistakes in syllabic and phonemic tests, reading words, and pseudowords than students with learning difficulties and excellent academic performance.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bianca dos Santos, Simone Aparecida Capellini Stage to Change Eating behavior and physical activity among adolescents with an excess body mass: impact on metabolic profile 2020-10-09T16:02:25-03:00 Marciele Alves Bolognese Danilo Fernandes da Silva Josiane Aparecida Alves Bianchini Rose Mari Benemmamm Nelson Nardo Junior <p>Introduction: Obesity in children and adolescents is usuallyrelated to metabolic alterations, and intervention programs are one of the strategies for the treatment of obesity and associated comorbidities. At the beginning of the intervention, the stages of readiness to change behavior indicate specific habits that the teenager plans to modify or not, and how long he or she intends to make the alterations.</p> <p>Objective: To assess the metabolic profile and their association with the stages of readiness to change eating habits and exercise behaviors in adolescents with overweight.</p> <p>Methods: Eighty-three adolescents with excess body weight underwent an assessment of anthropometric variables and metabolic profile (glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, non-HDL-c, VLDL, triglycerides, insulin). Besides, the stages of readiness to change behaviors for “size and amount of portions,” “amount of fat in the diet,” fruits and vegetable consumption,” and “physical activity practice,” anthropometric variables and metabolic profile were compared according to the stages of change.</p> <p>Results: About “fruits and vegetable consumption,” adolescents in the Maintenance group presented lower body weight than those from Action and Preparation groups. The Action group presented higher body weight than group “Contemplation” and it showed higher non-HDL-cholesterol than the groups “Pre-contemplation” and “Preparation.” In “physical activity practice,” the Maintenance group presented lower body weight, Body Mass Index, and body fat (in kg) than Action, Preparation, and Contemplation groups. The alterations in HDL-cholesterol reduced as the stages of change progressed in the “physical activity practice” domain.</p> <p>Conclusion: The stages of readiness to change behaviors impact anthropometric and metabolic variables in adolescents with excess body weight, and it is a recommended instrument to monitor intervention programs.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marciele Alves Bolognese, Danilo Fernandes da Silva, Josiane Aparecida Alves Bianchini, Rose Mari Benemmamm, Nelson Nardo Junior Maternal perception of the child’s nutritional status from the perspective of adjusted residual analysis 2020-10-14T09:33:15-03:00 Gustavo Carreiro Pinasco Arthur Brunelli Sales Carla Venância Aguilar Santos Elizandra Cola Fabiano Novaes Barcellos Filho João Batista Francalino da Rocha Eduardo Moreno Júdice de Mattos Farina Willer França Fiorotti Luiz Carlos de Abreu <p>Backgroung: The maternal perception of the nutritional status of their children has several important social factors in its composition and it can be important in determine quality of children’s food.</p> <p><br />Objective: To assess social factors influencing maternal perception of her children´s nutritional status.</p> <p><br />Methods: Cross sectional study with school children from 6 to 10 years from a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The data was obtained through a structured questionnaire applied to mothers and through children’s body mass index. Associations between variables were analyzed by the Qui-square test and<br />by the adjusted residues analysis, with 5% of significance. The agreement between maternal perception and nutritional status was assessed through the Kappa test.</p> <p> </p> <p>Results: We found incorrect perception in 45.8% of cases, from which 98.2% were underestimation, with 80% of underestimation for overweight children. We found poor and slight agreement for all cases. Adjusted residuals pointed eutrophic underestimation; better maternal perception for<br />the obese; better perception for mothers that attained middle and high school levels; underestimation for eutrophic boys and correct perception for eutrophic girls. Single mothers and<br />those who do not work outside tended to underestimate their eutrophic children.</p> <p><br />Conclusion: We found poor agreement for almost all cases, with exception to mothers of girls and those that do not work outside. A correct perception was related positively with lower education levels, being worse for mothers without a partner and for those who do not work outside. Mothers of girls, compared to mothers of boys, had a more accurate perception.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gustavo Carreiro Pinasco Preconception care: developing and implementing regional and national programs 2020-10-10T21:09:44-03:00 Hani Atrash Brian Jack <p>Introduction: During the past few decades, health workers have come to agree that there is a very important place for preconception care (PCC) in improving maternal and infant pregnancy outcomes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization issued recommendations encouraging countries to develop and implement preconception care programs. The reports include an in-depth discussion of the rationale and scientific evidence behind PCC as well as definitions, goals, components and recommended interventions to be included in PCC. These reports also offer very broad guidelines but do not offer details on how to develop and implement preconception care programs.</p> <p>Objective: The CDC and WHO reports identify the need for multisectoral engagement in developing and implementing preconception care programs and propose some activities and strategies to be considered in developing PCC programs. However, the recommendations fall short of specifying real steps that countries and regions should take in implementing PCC programs. In this publication we propose action steps for developing and implementing regional or national preconception care programs.</p> <p>Methods: We reviewed the published and unpublished literature (using PubMed and the Internet) to identify reports that describe processes for developing and implementing PCC programs. We used information from the literature along with experiences we gained through our work and interaction with States and developing countries to prepare a detailed description of the steps involved in developing and implementing a PCC program.</p> <p>Results: We found very little in terms of “tools” for program managers and providers to use when developing and implementing PCC programs. We prepared a guide, including a summary of steps and a proposed timeline, for program directors to use for developing and implementing PCC programs.</p> <p>Conclusion: Developing and implementing a sustainable PCC program should address issues related to educating the public, providers and policy makers about the benefits of PCC. It also includes establishing an infrastructure within the departments of health and ensuring resources to build, guide, monitor and evaluate the PCC program. Finally, implementation of a successful program depends heavily on the proper training of public health and clinical care providers in the delivery of the services included in the program.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hani Atrash, Brian Jack Preconception care to improve pregnancy outcomes: clinical practice guidelines 2020-10-10T20:52:08-03:00 Hani Atrash Brian Jack <p>Introduction: There is scientific evidence that the health of women before pregnancy contributes to the maternal and infant outcomes of pregnancy. There is also scientific evidence that the health of women of reproductive age may be improved through the provision of Preconception Care (PCC). Preconception care includes interventions to assess, identify, address, and modify a woman’s health conditions and risks to ensure that these health conditions and risks do not negatively affect the outcome of her pregnancy. Many of the medical conditions, environmental exposures, personal behaviors, and psychosocial risks associated with negative pregnancy outcomes have been identified and there are recommendations for including these conditions in PCC services.</p> <p>Objective: Our purpose is to present a tool for clinical care providers involved in delivering PCC services. We try to answer the following questions: what do providers actually do when a woman of reproductive age arrives at their offices? What questions to ask? What examinations to conduct? What laboratory tests to perform? And, what education and counselling to offer?</p> <p>Methods: We reviewed published and un-published literature related to the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of PCC in improving pregnancy outcomes. We searched PubMed for published articles, and we searched the internet for unpublished reports prepared by international organizations such as the World Health Organization and reports from governmental agencies. We summarized the information and presented a comprehensive overview of actions that providers should take to address various risk behaviors, exposures and health conditions.</p> <p>Results: Several scientists, countries, and international organizations have proposed answers to the above questions. However, there has been no consistency and there is not a single publication that includes a comprehensive compilation of the proposed actions. We summarized the recommended actions that clinical care providers should take in addressing various health conditions, risk behaviors, and exposures.</p> <p>Conclusion: It is recommended that all providers screen all women for their intentions to become pregnant and to provide them with appropriate services. Women should be referred to specialized care when risk behaviors and medical conditions that go beyond the skills and abilities of the primary care provider are identified.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hani Atrash Written narrative of students with and without difficulty in syntactic awareness 2020-10-12T18:58:29-03:00 Ana Claudia Constant Soares Patrícia Aparecida Zuanetti Kelly da Silva Raphaela Barroso Guedes-Granzotti Marisa Tomoe Hebihara Fukuda <p>Introduction: Syntactic awareness is a metalinguistic ability defined as the child’s ability to reflect on formal processes relating to the organization of words in sentences and to manipulate them. This skill is still little explored in the context of school learning, and its importance in the school learning process of Portuguese-speaking children is poorly described.</p> <p>Objective: To compare written narrative between children with and without difficulty in syntactic awareness.</p> <p>Methods: The study was conducted on 60 children (mean age 9.4 years; SD: 0.9) enrolled in the 4th and 5th years of elementary school in a municipal school. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their performance in the task of syntactic awareness - G1 (children with medium/high performance in syntactic awareness) and G2 (lower performance). After the assessment of syntactic awareness each child elaborated a written narrative text based on a stimulus figure. This text was analyzed by judges in terms of spelling, grammatical errors, use of grammatical classes, and content. The Student t-test (α = 0.05) was used to compare the groups.</p> <p>Results: G2 children showed altered handwriting; greater occurrence of spelling mistakes, mainly of irregular phonographic relation type; oral support and difficulty with nasal markers; short texts with preference for the use of nouns and verbs, as well as difficulties with text structuring, use of punctuation and vocabulary, while G1 used more verbs and pronouns instead of nouns.</p> <p>Conclusions: Children with adequate syntactic awareness were able to elaborate written narratives with greater competence, demonstrating acquisition of orthographic aspects and development of textual coherence.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ana Claudia Constant Soares, Patrícia Aparecida Zuanetti, Kelly da Silva Subjective aspects of body image in women with fibromyalgia 2020-10-14T11:17:19-03:00 Rodrigo Sanches Peres Sofia de Freitas Costa Manoel Antônio dos Santos <p>Introduction: Body image refers to the figuration of the body in the mind, has a strong experiential component, and is permeated by subjective aspects.</p> <p><br />Objective: To analyze the subjective aspects of body image in women with fibromyalgia.</p> <p><br />Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study. Participants were 16 women with a confirmed diagnosis for at least six months. The instrument used was the Human Figure Drawing (HFD), a projective technique for the exclusive use<br />of psychologists, following the procedures established in the specialized literature. The examination of the material was carried out independently by two expert evaluators, who used<br />meaning attribution criteria established in classic publications in psychological evaluation.</p> <p> </p> <p>Results: The following indicators in the participants’ drawings were highlighted: medium thickness and continuous line, small size, location in the fourth quadrant, presence of reinforcements and representations of joints, figures with static body posture, and simplified facial features. These indicators were interpreted as signs suggestive of passivity, insecurity, inhibition, feeling of inferiority, conflicts regarding difficulties in contact, propensity to take refuge in fantasy, idealization, regression, and attempts at omnipotent control, psychic rigidity, and devitalization. Therefore, the body image of the participants seemed to be<br />determined by mental representations that include the body, but are not restricted to their biological dimensions or the physical limitations resulting from the symptomatic manifestations of<br />fibromyalgia.</p> <p><br />Conclusion: The participants’ body image had an inherently negative value since it was subjectively shaped by internalized and unconscious unfavorable concepts about themselves.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rodrigo Sanches Peres Physical punishment at home and grade retention related to bullying 2020-10-14T11:37:46-03:00 Marcela Almeida Zequinão Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira Pâmella de Medeiros Paola Cidade Beatriz Pereira Fernando Luiz Cardoso <p>Backgroung: Several situations can affect the development and health of school children and adolescents. Bullying, characterized by a set of aggressive, intentional and repetitive behaviors, marked by the imbalance of power between victims and bullies, is one of the most serious problems in this sense, as it occurs in a context in which security and sociability are assumed. Therefore, this study was developed to expand the understanding about this phenomenon,<br />contemplating variables ignored in many studies (family interactions, modes of discipline and school failure).</p> <p><br />Objective: To analyze the participation of students in bullying situations and their experiences of vulnerability “to be beaten at home” and “grade retention”.</p> <p> </p> <p>Methods: the study consisted of 409 students from the 3rd to the 7th grades of Brazilian Elementary Education of two public schools. The data were collected through a questionnaire instrument with structured questions with the purpose of describing the possible roles of participation in bullying and characterizing the students regarding<br />the context of social vulnerability in which they were. Vulnerability indicators were considered: per capita income, schooling of the adult population, housing conditions and crime / violence indices. Two schools were the research scenario. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics using the Chi-square test to verify the association<br />between the variables, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis for comparison between groups.</p> <p> </p> <p>Results: to be beaten at home was associated with the students’ involvement in bullying situations as victims, bullies and bully-victims. These students also differed in relation to years of grade retention and frequency of physical punishment when compared to students not involved in bullying situations. Students classified as bullyvictims<br />demonstrated greater vulnerability in relation to the variables investigated. There were no significant differences in the comparison between participants’ sex and involvement in bullying situations.</p> <p><br />Conclusion: It was observed that physical punishment used as a home discipline strategy and school failure are factors that increase students’ vulnerability to bullying or victimization. The data indicate that it is necessary to include families in anti-bullying intervention actions. At the same time, it must be considered that this inclusion should not be restricted to the field of education or school. It is necessary to think in an intersectoral way, especially including the<br />family health teams that have moments with the families and that can be used to think about discipline techniques and how children, children and adolescents are disciplined at home.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marcela Almeida Zequinão The use of active methodologies as teaching strategies of measuring blood pressure 2020-10-14T11:46:19-03:00 Cynthia Kallás Bachur José Alexandre Bachur Sarah da Silva Candido Juliana Pereira Machado Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy Daniel Cássio Magalhaes da Silva e Silva Eugenia Velludo Veiga <p>Backgroung: Blood pressure (BP) measurement is part of the physical examination performed by students in the health field. Active methodologies may be linked to the education system, with positive contributions to knowledge about BP measurement steps.</p> <p>Objective: Compare knowledge about blood pressure measurement steps, before and after an educational intervention among physiotherapy and medical students.</p> <p>Methods: Quasi-experimental study, with a single group that will be in control of itself, before and after the intervention, carried out in the year 2020. The evaluations were based on the active methodologies: KAHOOT, theoretical evaluation, and the OSCE method for practical evaluation. An educational intervention was carried out, using the Inverted Classroom, followed by debates, using practice and simulation for better learning. In the pre and post-intervention comparison, the Wilcoxon test was used on the theoretical and practical knowledge of students regarding blood pressure measurement.</p> <p>Results: A total of 81 students, mean age 22.31 + 3.24 years. In the theoretical knowledge, from the KAHOOT, in the comparison before and after the educational intervention, a significant difference was observed in the total number of correct answers (p &lt;0.001), except in the “patient position” step (p = 0.227). In the analysis of practical knowledge, from the checklist used in the OSCE, there was a significant improvement after the pedagogical intervention in all analyzed stages (p = 0.001).</p> <p>Conclusion: educational intervention with active methodologies inverted classroom, KAHOOT, and OSCE were useful in apprehending knowledge about Blood Pressure measurement and suggests studies of broader scope.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Cynthia Kallás Bachur Factors associated with dengue cases in brazilian industrial area: an ecological study 2020-10-14T11:55:15-03:00 Danilo Correa Cordeiro Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca Claudia Arab Francisco Naildo Cardoso Leitão Juliana Zangirolami-Raimundo Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo <p>Introduction: Dengue is an acute systemic viral infectious disease, established worldwide in epidemic and endemic transmission cycles. High levels of precipitation, adequate temperatures, proximity between urban and peri-urban centers, human movement between population centers and urban solid waste (USW) production may facilitate dengue transmission and spread.</p> <p>Objective: To identify the relationship between diagnosed dengue cases and socioeconomic factors, USW mass generation and rainfall index.</p> <p>Methods: Ecological study, with secondary data collection from 2010 to 2016 for each municipality of the Greater ABC Region in São Paulo, Brazil. Total population, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, USW, number of dengue cases and rainfall index were investigated. Data were collected on the websites of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), the municipalities of the Greater ABC Region, the Greater ABC Intermunicipal Consortium, the Greater ABC Economic Development Agency, the National Sanitation Information System, Surveillance Epidemiological Survey of the State of São Paulo and the Department of Water and Electric Energy of the State of São Paulo. Relationships between variables were tested by Spearman correlation.</p> <p>Results: Data analysis of all municipalities showed a positive correlation between dengue cases with total population (r=0.675, p&lt;0.01), gross domestic product per capita (r=0.539, p&lt;0.01) and MSW by inhabitant per year (r=0.492, p&lt;0.01). Positive correlations were also observed between total population and gross domestic product per capita (r=0.583, p&lt;0.01), MSW / Day (r=0.302, p&lt;0.05) and MSW/year (r=0.961, p&lt;0.01); gross domestic product per capita and MSW/day (r=0.849, p&lt;0.01), MSW/year (r=0.410, p&lt;0.05) and rainfall index (RI) (r=0.416, p&lt;0.05); MSW / day and MSW / year (r=0.389, p&lt;0.01) and RI (r=0.388, p&lt;0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion: The larger the total population, purchasing power or socioeconomic status (GDP per capita) and the generation of MSW, the greater the number of dengue cases. Proper packaging of MSW seems to be a way to help in dengue cases control.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Danilo Correa Cordeiro Motor learning through a non-immersive virtual task in people with limb-girdle muscular dystrophies 2020-10-14T12:02:19-03:00 Marcelo Prumes Talita Dias da Silva Camila Aparecida de Oliveira Alberissi Camila Miliani Capellini Lilian Del Ciello de Menezes João Batista Francalino da Rocha Francis Meire Favero Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro <p>Introduction: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are neuromuscular and genetic disorders that progress with weakness and damage of the proximal muscles, developing with loss of functionality. Virtual reality environments are suggested as an effective alternative for performance of daily life activities. However, there is no evidence in the literature on the use of virtual reality in this population.</p> <p>Objective: Assess motor performance through a motor learning protocol in a coincident timing task.</p> <p>Methods: 10 participants with LGMD and 10 healthy individuals were selected and included in the study to perform a non-immersive virtual reality task divided into three phases: acquisition (20 attempts), retention (5 attempts), and transfer (5 attempts, with speed increase).</p> <p>Results: It is observed that the accuracy of movement improves from the beginning to the end of the acquisition (p = 0.01); however, there is a marginal difference between the groups in block A1 (p = 0.089). Regarding the variability of touches, observed by the variable error, both groups improved performance in all phases.</p> <p>Conclusion: Even with lower performance than the control group at the beginning of the practice, individuals with LGMD showed the potential to optimize motor function during the practice of a non-immersive virtual reality activity and were able to match their performance with the control group after a few attempts.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marcelo Prumes A case report on rapid clinical recovery and satisfactory outcome of a toddler with probable Guillain-Barré Syndrome 2020-10-14T12:07:52-03:00 Luciana Guerra Gallo Ana Flávia de Morais Oliveira Luíza Morais de Matos Amanda Amaral Abrahão Flávia de Assis Silva João Pedro Mendes Carolina Martins Pereira Amanda Silva Franco Molinari Ernane Pires Maciel <p>Introduction: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is the most frequent cause of acute and sub-acute flaccid paralysis after polio eradication. Although rare, it is recognized as the leading cause of flaccid paralysis among the admissions to pediatric intensive care for acute neuromuscular diseases.</p> <p>Objective: To report the case of a 14-month-old male patient with a probable diagnosis of GBS with acute, myelinated motor sensitive neuropathy, with probable secondary axonal involvement, with rapid clinical recovery.</p> <p>Case Report: A male patient admitted in a reference hospital in the Federal District, Brazil, residing in the Integrated Development Region of the Federal District and Surroundings. The child was 14 months old and 8.6 kg, with an updated vaccination status and neuropsychomotor development appropriate for his age, with a condition of paresis in the lower limbs, without cognitive changes. After 14 hours of admission, due to the worsening of his clinical situation and the albumino-cytological dissociation identified by the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, it was started immunotherapy with intravenous human immunoglobulin, 0.7g/kg/day for three days. Twenty four hours after start of treatment, the child showed a clinical improvement of his general condition. The patient was discharged after five days of hospitalization. After 76 days of discharge, there was a significant improvement in neuropsychomotor development, despite a slight delay in its development.</p> <p>Conclusion: Due to the rarity of Guillain-Barré Syndrome among young children, it is important that health professionals remain sensitive to capture and treat unusual cases in a timely manner. We also recommend that the identified cases be monitored carefully, in order to check if the Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and its variants, can explain developmental disorders a posteriori.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Luciana Guerra Gallo The numerous denominations of the Brugada syndrome and proposal about how to put an end to an old controversy - a historical-critical perspective 2020-10-14T12:16:16-03:00 Joseane Elza Tonussi Mendes Kjell Nikus Raimundo Barbosa-Barros Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera <p>Backgroung: The eponymous Brugada Syndrome (BrS) in honor of its discovery as an independent entity by the Spanish/ Catalan Brugada brothers, Pedro and Josep, has deserved numerous denominations derived mainly from the clinical genotype/phenotype correlation. The purpose of this manuscript is to present and analyze the nomenclatures that this intriguing and challenging syndrome has received over the past 28 years. We also compared the main features between cases from the first report of the Brugada brothers and an article by Martini et al. The nomenclatures used by these authors are closely linked to the BrS, but the cases (except one) presented in the article by Martini et al do not present the type 1 Brugada ECG pattern, which is mandatory for the diagnosis of BrS.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Joseane Elza Tonussi Mendes Letter to the editor by Bortolo Martini regarding the article: The numerous denominations of the Brugada syndrome and proposal about how to put an end to an old controversy - a historical-critical perspective 2020-10-09T12:38:16-03:00 Bortolo Martini <p>After the publication of article “The numerous denominations of the Brugada syndrome and proposal about how to put an end to an old controversy - a historical-critical perspective”, we recently received a commented letter from Mr. Bortolo Martini, which we present below: Item quae sunt Caésaris Caésari et quae sunt Dei Deo. (Matthew 22:21 Jesus said “So give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s, and to God what is God’s). A word of fairness please!</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bortolo Martini M.D. 30 years of the Journal of Human Growth and Development: scientific communication in the several areas of knowledge 2020-10-09T09:56:09-03:00 Italla Maria Pinheiro Bezerra Alberto Olavo Advincula Reis Carlos Bandeira de Melo Monteiro Claudio Leone Elisa Tristan-Cheever Paulo Rogério Gallo Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo Vitor Engracia Valenti Luiz Carlos de Abreu <div id="main"> <div id="cnt" class=" big"> <div class="mw"> <div id="rcnt"> <div class="col"> <div id="center_col"> <div id="res" class="med" role="main"> <div id="search"> <div data-ved="2ahUKEwiF7P2LyKfsAhW0FbkGHUALBfcQGnoECBYQMQ"> <div id="rso" data-async-context="query:tradutor"> <div class="g knavi obcontainer mod" data-ved="2ahUKEwiF7P2LyKfsAhW0FbkGHUALBfcQkCkwAHoECAIQAA" data-hveid="CAIQAA" data-md="77"> <div id="tw-main" data-hveid="CAIQAQ"> <div id="tw-container" class="vk_c" data-uilc="pt-BR" data-sugg-url="" data-sugg-time="500" data-sm="1" data-nnttsvi="1" data-cp="1"> <div> <div class="jhH5U" data-jsdata=""> <div id="tw-ob" class="tw-src-ltr"> <div class="oSioSc"> <div id="tw-target"> <div id="kAz1tf" class="g9WsWb"> <div id="tw-target-text-container" class="tw-ta-container hide-focus-ring tw-nfl" tabindex="0"> <pre id="tw-target-text" class="tw-data-text tw-text-large XcVN5d tw-ta" dir="ltr" data-placeholder="Tradução"><span lang="en">Not applicable</span></pre> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2020-10-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Italla Maria Pinheiro Bezzerra, Alberto Olavo Advincula Reis, Carlos Bandeira de Melo Monteiro, Claudio Leone, Elisa Tristan-Cheever, Paulo Rogério Gallo, Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo, Vitor Engracia Valenti, Luiz Carlos de Abreu