A “Dark Root” of Global History

Contributions made by Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee


  • Diego Pereira Instituto de Relações Internacionais, Universidade de Brasília




Oswald Spengler, Arnold Toynbee, Historiography of Global History


This is a historiographical inquire about a specific source of Global History. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the links between Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee’s works and contemporary Global History. Both authors raised a holistic, non-State centric and pretending anti-Eurocentric approach of world history. Nevertheless, both remain as controversial writers for their anti-academic claims, particularly the cyclic vision of history and the intention to predict the future. Despite that, in the following years, several scholars had filtered the controversial elements of those authors to adapt them to scientific standards. Among authors such as Fernand Braudel, Raymond Aron, Martin Wight and Helio Jaguaribe, William McNeill stands out as a fundamental link to contemporary Global History.


Não há dados estatísticos.


Carregando Métricas ...


ARON, R. Memórias. Tradução: Octavio Alves Velho. Rio De Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1986.

ARON, R. Paz e guerra entre as nações. Tradução: Sergio Bath. São Paulo: WMF Martins Fontes/UNB, 2018.

BAYLY, C. A. The Birth of the Modern World, 1780 - 1914. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.

BERG, M. Writing the History of the Global: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century. 1st edition ed. Oxford: British Academy, 2013.

BOLTON, K. Oswald Spengler An Introduction to His Life and Work. In: Prussian Socialism and Other Essays. London: Black House Publishing, 2018.

BOWDEN, B. The Strange Persistence of Universal History in Political Thought. Sydney, New South Wales: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

BRAUDEL, F. La historia y las ciencias sociales. Tradução: Josefina Gómez Mendoza. Madrid: Alianza, 1970.

BRAUDEL, F. Grammaire des civilisations. Paris: Editions Flammarion, 2013.

BRICEÑO RUÍZ, J.; SIMMONOFF, A. (EDS.). Integración y cooperación regional en América Latina: Una relectura a partir de la teoría de la autonomía. Buenos Aires: Biblos, 2015.

CHRISTIAN, D. Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. Second Edition, With a New Preface edition ed. Berkeley, Calif London: University of California Press, 2011.

CHRISTIAN, D. The Cambridge World History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. v. 1

CHRISTIAN, D. What is Big History? Journal of Big History, v. 1, n. 1, p. 4–19, 31 dez. 2017.

CHRISTIAN, D. Origin Story: A Big History of Everything. New York, Boston, London: Hachette UK, 2018.

CONRAD, S. What Is Global History? Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2016.

DIAMOND, J. Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1997.

DIAMOND, J. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Viking, 2005.

DIAMOND, J. The world until yesterday: what can we learn from traditional societies? London: Allen Lane, 2013.

DIAMOND, J. Upheaval: how nations cope with crisis and change. London: Penguin Books, 2019.

FEBVRE, L. De Spengler a Toynbee Quelques Philosophies Opportunistes De L’histoire. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, v. 43, n. 4, p. 573–602, 1936.

GILLS, B.; THOMPSON, W. R. (EDS.). Globalization and Global History. London ; New York: Routledge, 2006.

HALL, I. Challenge and Response: The Lasting Engagement of Arnold J. Toynbee and Martin Wight. International Relations, v. 17, n. 3, p. 389–404, 1 set. 2003.

HARTOG, F. De l’histoire universelle à l’histoire globale? Le Debat, v. 154, n. 2, p. 53–66, 2009.

HAUSBERGER, B.; PANI, E. Historia global. Presentación. Historia Mexicana, p. 177–196, 1 jul. 2018.

HERMAN, A. A idéia de decadência na história ocidental. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 1999.

HUGHES, H. S. Oswald Spengler, a critical estimate. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1975.

HUNTINGTON, S. P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

JAGUARIBE, H. Um estudo crítico da história. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2001. v. 1

JAGUARIBE, H. O século XX no mundo en no Brasil (2002). In: Brasil, mundo e homem na atualidade : estudos diversos. Brasilia: FUNAG, 2008. p. 936.

JAGUARIBE, H. O nacionalismo na atualidade brasileira. Brasília: FUNAG, 2013.

JOLL, J. Two prophets of the twentieth century: Spengler and Toynbee. Review of International Studies, v. 11, n. 2, p. 91–104, abr. 1985.

KAPLAN, R. D. The revenge of geography: what the map tells us about coming conflicts and the battle against fate. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2013.

KISSINGER, H. The meaning of history: (reflections on Spengler, Toynbee and Kant). [s.l.] Harvard, 1951.

KISSINGER, H. Ordem mundial. Tradução: Cláudio Figueiredo. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2015a.

KISSINGER, H. China. Tradução: Carmen Geronès; Tradução: Carlos Urritz. Barcelona: Debate, 2015b.

KUIPERS, S. De doorwerking van Oswald Spenglers ‘Untergang des Abendlandes’ in Samuel Huntingtons ‘Clash of Civilizations’. Radbout University, 2017.

KUNTZ FICKER, S. Mundial, trasnacional, global: Un ejercicio de clarificación conceptual de los estudios globales. Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos. Nouveaux mondes mondes nouveaux - Novo Mundo Mundos Novos - New world New worlds, 27 mar. 2014.

LAFER, C. Zelotismo/herodianismo en la reflexión de helio jaguaribe. Revista de Estudios Brasileños, v. 1, n. 1, 2014.

LANDES, D. S. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor. unknown edition ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.

LE GOFF, J. História e memória. Tradução: Bernardo Leitão. Campinas: UNICAMP, 1990.

LESSA, A. C. Helio Jaguaribe: a geração do nacional-desenvolvimentismo. In: Pensamento Diplomático Brasileiro: Formuladores e Agentes da Política Externa (1750-1964). Brasília: FUNAG, 2013.

MAZLISH, B. Comparing Global History to World History. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, v. 28, n. 3, p. 385–395, 1998.

MAZLISH, B. The New Global History. London: Routledge, 2006.

MCNEILL, J. R.; ENGELKE, P. The Great Acceleration An Environmental History of the Anthropocene since 1945. Philadelphia, Pa: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

MCNEILL, J. R.; MCNEILL, W. H. Las redes humanas: una historia global del mundo. Tradução: Jordi Beltrán. Barcelona: Crítica, 2004.

MCNEILL, J. R.; POMERANZ, K. (EDS.). The Cambridge World History: Volume 7, Production, Destruction, and Connection, 1750–Present, Part 2, Shared Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

MCNEILL, W. H. Plagues and Peoples. New York: Anchor Books, 1977.

MCNEILL, W. H. Arnold J. Toynbee: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

MCNEILL, W. H. The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992a.

MCNEILL, W. H. The Rise of the West after Twenty-five Years. In: The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992b.

MUÑOZ, L. R. O conceito de autonomia em Puig e Jaguaribe: uma analise comparativa intertextual. Carta Internacional, v. 11, n. 2016, p. 200–221, 2016.

SANTOS, J. J. G. DOS; SOCHACZEWSKI, M. História global: um empreendimento intelectual em curso. Tempo, v. 23, p. 483–502, dez. 2017.

SCHÄFER, W. Big History, the Whole Story, and Nothing Less? Canadian Journal of History, v. xvi, p. 317–328, 2006.

SPENGLER, O. The decline of the West, complete in one volume. Tradução: Charles Francis Atkinson. New York: A. Knopf, 1927.

SPENGLER, O. The hour of decision, part one: Germany and world-historical evolution. Tradução: Charles Francis Atkinson. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1934.

———. 1967. Selected Essays. A Gateway Edition. H. Regnery Company.

STEFFEN, W.; CRUTZEN, P. J.; MCNEILL, J. R. The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature? Ambio, v. 36, n. 8, p. 614–621, 2007.

TANAKA, S. New Times in Modern Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.

THIES, C. G. A Pragmatic Guide to Qualitative Historical Analysis in the Study of International Relations. International Studies Perspectives, v. 3, n. 4, p. 351–372, 1 nov. 2002.

TOYNBEE, A. Estudio de la Historia. Tradução: Luis Grasset. Madrid: Alianza, 1970a. v. 1

TOYNBEE, A. Estudio de la historia. Tradução: Luis Grasset; Tradução: Luis A Bixio. Madrid: Alianza, 1970b. v. 2

TOYNBEE, A. J. Civilization on trial: Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 1948.

TUCKER, R. P. et al. Environmental histories of the First World War. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2018.

VASCONCELLOS, P. M. C. DE. História Global: o novo encontro entre a História e as Ciências Sociais. Revista História: Debates e Tendências, v. 21, n. 1, p. 199–215, 2021.

WIGHT, M. Arnold Toynbee: An Appreciation. International Affairs, v. 52, n. 1, p. 10–12, 1 jan. 1976.




Como Citar

PEREIRA, D. A “Dark Root” of Global History: Contributions made by Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee. Brazilian Journal of International Relations, Marília, SP, v. 10, n. 3, p. 677–698, 2021. DOI: 10.36311/2237-7743.2021.v10n3.p677-698. Disponível em: https://revistas.marilia.unesp.br/index.php/bjir/article/view/11073. Acesso em: 29 maio. 2024.