Leisure for Peace? Revisiting the Tourism-Peace Nexus
Palavras-chave:Internationalism, International tourism, Leisure, Pacifism, Peace, Tourism
Tourism is an important aspect of the contemporary international commerce. It accounts for a significant share of the foreign exchange of many nations, especially those with a thriving tourism sector. While scholarly works abound on the economic, cultural and social values of tourism, there has been a debate as regards the utility of tourism as an enabler for peace. This paper interrogates the pacific import of international tourism against the backdrop of the growing significance of the tourism sector globally. By way of a qualitative analysis of secondary data, anchored on the theory of internationalism, the paper interrogates the tourism-peace nexus in the light of emerging insights, positing that international tourism holds potentials that could be leveraged towards promoting international peace and stability.
Recebido em: março/2019
Aprovado em: janeiro/2020.
Baker, D.M. (2014). The effects of terrorism on the travel and tourism industry. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage 2(1), 58-67.
Becheur, M. (2011). The Jasmine Revolution and the tourism industry in Tunisia. MSc. Dissertation, Graduate Collage, University of Navada, Las Vegas.
Bonarou, C. (2011). Museum Management. Lesson 2: Tourism, Heritage and Heritage Tourism (1st Part). Lecture Note, Alexander Technological Education Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece.
DePuma, C-M.(2015). Terrorized tourism: A study of the impact of terrorism on tourism. Honours Thesis, Paper 317, University of Southern Mississippi.
Hacking, L. (1946). A plea for International understanding. The Journal of Tourist Review, 1 (1), 8-9.
Haile, A. (2017). Peace through commence: Tourism and development in Eritrea. Sustainable Tourism Assessment, Eritrea.
Halliday, F. (2001).The World at 2000. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Ibeanu, O. (2006). Conceptualizing peace. In S.G. Best (ed.). Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan: spectrum Books.
IEP [Institute for Economic and Peace] (2018). Global Peace Index. A publication of Institute for Economics and Peace.
Iriye, A. ( 1997). Cultural Internationalism and World Order. Baltimore: John Hopkins.
Jeffrey, H. (2017). Tunisia: Mass tourism in a small world (p.191). In: H. Jeffrey and S. Bleasdale (eds), Mass Tourism in a Small World. CABI
Mathieson, A. & Wall, G. (1982). Tourism: Economic, physical and social impacts. New York: Longman.
McLean, I. and McMillan .A. [eds] (2003). Oxford Concise Dictionary of Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Ministry of Tourism and Handcrafts [Tunisia] (2016). Tourism Figures. Available at http://www.tourismegov.tn/en/achievements-and-prospects/tourism-in-figures/figures-2015.html (accessed November 19, 2019).
Mir, S.R. & Ahmad, M. (2018). Media, conflict and tourism: Insights from Kashmir. International Journal of Social Science (IJSS), 7 (1), 53-57.
Moik, C. (2017, October). The Terrorism-Tourism Nexus – The Causal Impact of Terrorist Attacks on Tourism Demand. https://cmdataresearch.com/2017/10/09/the-terrorism-tourism-nexus/(accessed Februar 4, 2019).
Okech, A. (2015). Asymmetrical conflict and human security: Reflections from Kenya. Strategic Review for Southern Africa, 37 (1), 53-74.
Okoli, A.C (2009). The place of diplomacy in Peace Support Operations (PSOs). A lecture delivered at the Armed Forces Command and Staff College (AFSC), Jaji, Wednesday May 27, 2009.
Okoli; A.C. & Okpaleke, F.N. (2016). The concept of peace: An exhortatory discourse. Taraba State University Journal of Sociology, 2 (1), 1-18.
Pratt, S. & Liu, A. (2015). Does tourism really lead to peace? A global view. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(1), 82-90.
Perderson, S.B (2017). Peace through tourism: A brief history of a popular Catchphrase. In M. Andren (ed). Cultural Borders and European Integration. Goteborg: Centrum for Europaforsning Forfattarna (pp. 30-37).
Radice, H. (2007). Internationalism: Bringing the state back to progressive international politics. Paper presented at the 6th Pan–European Conference on International Relations, Turin, 13th September, 2007.
Rop, W. (2013). Leisure Time use in Kenya, an assessment of University undergraduate students in Eldoret town. Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(3), 76-81.
Upadhayaya, P. (2011). Peace through Tourism: A Critical Look at Nepalese Tourism. Nepal Tourism & Development Review, 1(1), 15-40.
WEF [World Economic Forum] (2017/2008). Country Brand Ranking: Tourism Edition. A publication of the World Economic Forum.
WTTC [ World Travel and Tourism Council] (2016). Tourism as a driver of peace: Qualitative analysis on the link between peace and tourism. A publication of World Travel and Tourism Council.