Humanitarian relief and market interests: Genetically Modified Organisms in the United States food aid

  • Thiago Lima UFPB
  • Erbenia Lourenço PGPCI/UFPB; INCT-INEU
  • Henrique Zeferino de Menezes UFPB
Palavras-chave: Food Aid; Genetically Modified Organisms; Food Crisis

Resumo

In 2002, Southern Africa was struck by a severe food crisis. Despite the hardships, some nations of this region refused food aid from the US due to the presence of Genetically Modified Organisms. They claimed that the food was unsafe for their population’s consumption. The paper addresses the main reasons for the US donation of GMOs. Based on documental analysis, congressional hearings and literature review, we argue that although the donations may have the intention of helping the emergency problems of these African and Latin American countries, the food aid also promotes US market interests, disregarding public health conceptions and economic interests of those countries.

 

 

Recebido em: setembro/2019

Aprovado em: dezembro/2019

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

Associated Press (2005). Group: Banned maize included in food aid. NBC News. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/6983146/ns/world_news/t/group-banned-maize-included-foodaid/#.VUz0h_lVikq

Barret, C. B. (1998). Food aid: is it development assistance, trade promotion, both, or neither? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 80(3) p. 566-571.

Bhattacharjee, R. B. (2009). Liberty Link Rice: A True History of Contamination. Malaysia: Pesticide Action Network Asia And The Pacific (PAN AP).

Bodulovic, G. (2005). Viewpoint: Is the European attitude to GM products suffocating African development?. Functional Plant Biology, 32(12), p. 1069-1075.

Borges, I. C. et al. (2006). Impactos do Protocolo de Cartagena sobre o Comércio de Commodities Agrícolas. Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. Campinas.

Brahmi, P.; Chaudhary, V. (2011). Protection of plant varieties: systems across countries. Plant Genetic Resources, 9(3), p. 392-403.

Bruch, K.; Dewes, H. (2006). Limites do direito de propriedade industrial de plantas: um estudo de caso na videria. XXIV Simpósio de Gestão da Inovação Tecnológica. Porto Alegre-RS.
Burbach, R.; Flynn, P. (1980). Agribusiness nas Américas. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar Editores.

Camara, Maria Clara Coelho, Marinho, Carmem L.C., Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues, & Nodari, Rubens Onofre. (2009). Transgênicos: avaliação da possível (in)segurança alimentar através da produção científica. História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos, 16(3), 669-681.
Cavalli, S. B. (2001). Segurança alimentar: a abordagem dos alimentos transgênicos. Ver. Nutr., 14(suplemento), p.41-46.
Clay, Edward; Riley, Barry. (2005). The Development Effectiveness of Food Aid: Does Tying Matter? Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2IfFoSU

Clapp, J. (2012). Hunger in The Balance: The new politics of international food aid. Ithaca and London: Maizeell University Press.

Clapp, J. (2006). The political economy of food aid in an era of agricultural biotechnology. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 11(4), p. 467-485.

Clapp, J. The US Food Aid Debate: Major Reform on the Horizon? Retrieved from http://triplecrisis.com/the-us-food-aid-debate-major-reform-on-the-horizon/

Clapp, J. Turning the Tied? 2014 Farm Bill and The Future of US Food Aid. Retrieved from http://triplecrisis.com/turning-the-tied-2014-farm-bill-and-the-future-of-u-s-food-aid/

Cornish, L. (2018). Who are the donors taking on GMOs?
Retrieved from https://www.devex.com/news/who¬are¬the¬donors¬taking¬on¬gmos¬91951

Correa, C. (2017). Implementing Farmers’ Rights Relating To Seeds. South Centre Research Paper, n. 75.

Diven, P. (2006). A coincidence of interests: The hyperpluralism of US food aid policy. Foreign Policy Analysis, 2(4), p. 361-384.

FAO (2018). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018. Building climate resilience for food security and nutrition. Rome: FAO.

Friends of Earth (2015). Africa Contaminated By Unapproved GM Rice From The United States. Retrieved from http://www.eraction.org/publications/FoEAfrica_briefing01.pdf

Fuck, M. P.; Bonacelli, M. B.; Carvalho, S. (2008). Propriedade intelectual em melhoramento vegetal: Brasil e Argentina frente às possibilidades de mudanças institucionais. Informações Econômicas, 38(9), p. 44-54.

Global Legal Research Center (2014). Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The Law Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/law/help/restrictions-ongmos/restrictions-on-gmos.pdf

Gregory, P.; Simwanda, L. (2002). Agricultural Biotechnology and Biosafety in Zambia. Zambia National Farmers Union, Zambia Trade and Investment Enhancement Project (ZAMTIE).

Halewood, M., & Nnadozie, K. (2008). Giving priority to the commons: The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA). In The Future Control of Food (pp. 137-162). Routledge.

Heuer, Sarah; Wolf, Leslie E.; Berry, Roberta M. (2008). Monsanto vs. Shmeiser. Journal of Philosophy Science and Law, 1(1).

James, Clive (2014) Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014. ISAAA Brief No. 49. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY.

Kimbrell, A.; Mendelson, J. (2005). Monsanto vs. U.S. Farmers. A Report by the Center for Food Safety. Center for Food Safety. Retrieved from https://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/files/cfsmonsantovsfarmerreport11305.pdf

Lima, T., & Dias, A. (2016). A ajuda alimentar internacional dos EUA: política externa, interesses econômicos e assistência humanitária. Revista Brasileira de Políticas Públicas e Internacionais, 1(1), 189-211.

Martins, A. (2010). Dependência e monopólio no comércio internacional de sementes transgênicas. 150f Master Dissertation - Departamento de Ciência Política do Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Murphy, J.; Yanacopulos, H. (2005). Understanding governance and networks: EU–US interactions and the regulation of genetically modified organisms. Geoforum, 36(5), p. 593-606.
Nodari, R. O.; Guerra, M. P. (2003). Plantas transgênicas e seus produtos: impactos, riscos e segurança alimentar (Biossegurança de plantas transgênicas). Rev. Nutr., 16(1), p.105-116.

Paarlberg, R. (2010). Food Politics: What everyone needs to know. NY: Oxford University Press.

Portillo, L. (1987). Alimentos para la paz?: la" ayuda" de Estados Unidos. Madrid: IEPALA Editorial.

Ruttan, V. W. et al. (1993). Why food aid? Johns Hopkins University Press.

Schlessinger, L.; Endres, A. B. The Missing Link: Farmers’ Class Action Against Syngenta May Answer Legal Questions Left After the StarLink and LibertyLink Letigation. Retrieved from http://farmdocdaily.illinois.edu/2015/02/missing-link-farmers-class-actionagainst-syngenta.html
Schubert, Robert. El nuevo Feudalismo Agrario: Percy Schmeiser, como otros agricultores, muestra los peligros de la agricultura industrial promovida por las multinacionales de los transgénicos. World Watch En Español, (24), p. 10-15.
Sustainable Pulse (2016). Gates Foundation and USAID Spread GMO Industry Control over Traditional African Crops. Retrieved from https://sustainablepulse.com/2016/04/04/gates-foundation-and-usaid-spread-gmo-industry-control-over-traditional-african-crops/#.XWFVvuhKjIU

Tansey, G.; Rajotte, T (ed). (2008). The Future Control of Food: a guide to international negotiation and rules on intellectual property, biodiversity and food security. Earthscan, London.
Taylor, M. R.; Tick, J. S. (2001). The StarLink case: Issues for the future. Washington DC: Resources for the Future.
Tahri, Jihan (2005). The price of aid. Documentário. Estados Unidos.

UN (2002). United Nations Statement Regarding the use of GM Foods as Food Aid in Southern Africa. Retrieved from https://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/newsroom/wfp076534.pdf

Zerbe, N. (2004). Feeding the famine? American food aid and the GMO debate in Southern Africa. Food Policy, 29(6), p. 593-608.

Ziff, Bruce (2005). Travels with my plant: Monsanto v. Schmeiser revisited. University of Ottawa Law Technol J., 2(2) p. 493-509.

Yamamura, S. (2006). Plantas Transgênicas e Propriedade Intelectual: Ciência. Tecnologia e Inovação no Brasil Frente aos Marcos Regulatórios. Dissertação de Mestrado do curso de política científica e tecnológica da UNICAMP.
Publicado
2020-03-30
Seção
Artigos