Da institucionalização aos impasses da OMC e a proliferação de acordos preferenciais de comércio no início do século XXI

From the institutionalization to the deadlocks of the WTO and the proliferation of preferential trade agreements in the beginning of the 21st century

  • Patrícia Nasser de Carvalho Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)
Palavras-chave: OMC, sistema de comércio internacional, acordos preferenciais de comércio, comércio internacional

Resumo

Desde a institucionalização da Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC), em 1995, ficaram evidentes as suas importantes conquistas na promoção do livre comércio e na gestão das regulações de bases multilaterais do Sistema de Comércio Internacional. No entanto, desde a última rodada (ainda em curso) de negociações da OMC, iniciada em 2001, em Doha, também foram revelados diversos impasses, que provocaram lentidão no avanço de entendimentos, parcos resultados no processo decisório e falta de interesse político dos seus membros. Esses obstáculos deixaram um vácuo no Sistema de Comércio Internacional multilateral, que vem sendo preenchido pelos Acordos preferenciais de comércio (APCs), ou seja, a opção dos países, em sua maioria membros da OMC, por barganhar APCs, neste início de século está intrinsicamente ligada às dificuldades encontradas por eles em concluir acordos satisfatórios nas rodadas de negociações comerciais multilaterais. No início do século XXI, a ampliação do número de APCs se dá a um ritmo de crescimento inigualável em todas as regiões do mundo. A partir de uma discussão pautada na perspectiva da Economia Política Internacional, os objetivos deste trabalho são: a) discutir os principais impasses no Sistema de Comércio Internacional multilateral, tendo em vista as dificuldades enfrentadas pela OMC ao longo das últimas duas décadas; b) a partir da análise dos dados disponíveis, identificar as principais configurações e tendências da proliferação de APCs no mundo, processos que se que intensificam na década de 1990, mas que ganharam mais fôlego no início do século XXI e formam estruturas normativas distintas da OMC.

 

Abstract: Since the institutionalization of the World Trade Organization (WTO), in 1995, its important achievements in the promotion of free trade and in the management of the regulations of multilateral bases of the International Trade System have been evident. However, since the last round (still in progress) of the WTO negotiations, which had begun in Doha in 2001, a number of deadlocks were also been revealed, which have resulted in slow progress in understandings, lack of results in the decision-making process and lack of political interest of its members. However, a number of deadlocks have also been revealed, which have led to slow progress in understanding, poor results in the decision-making process and lack of political interest of its members. These obstacles have left a vacuum in the multilateral International Trade System, which is being filled by the Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). This is the option of countries, mostly of them WTO members, to bargain PTAs, is intrinsically linked to the constraints they encountered in concluding satisfactory agreements in the rounds of multilateral trade negotiations. At the beginning of the 21st century, the expansion of the number of PTAs is at an unequaled growth rate in all regions of the world. From a discussion based on the perspective of International Political Economy, the objectives of this work are: a) to discuss the main deadlocks in the multilateral International Trade System in this century, given the difficulties faced by the WTO over the last two decades; b) from the analysis of the available data, to identify the main configurations and trends of the proliferation of PTAs in the world, processes that have been intensified since the 1990s, but have been a growing trend in the 21st century and taking different normative structures other than the WTO.

Keywords: World Trade Organization (WTO); International Trade; Preferential Trade Agreements; International Trade System.

 

 

Recebido em: maio/2018

Aprovado em: agosto/2018

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Biografia do Autor

Patrícia Nasser de Carvalho, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)
Professora do Departamento de Ciências Econômicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). Doutora em Economia Política Internacional pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ).

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Publicado
2018-09-17
Seção
Artigos