Operações de paz africanas: as experiências da OUA e da UA

African peace operations: the experience of the OAU and the AU

  • Nilton César Fernandes Cardoso Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
  • Guilherme Ziebell de Oliveira Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Palavras-chave: OUA, UA, operações de paz

Resumo

Este trabalho busca identificar e analisar as diferenças existentes entre as operações de paz conduzidas na África por países do continente nos âmbitos da Organização da Unidade Africana (OUA) e da União Africana (UA). Com a independência de grande parte dos países africanos durante a década de 1960, diversos conflitos passaram a eclodir na África, configurando-se como importantes ameaças aos Estados do continente. Diante disso, em 1963, a OUA foi criada com o objetivo de prevenir e auxiliar na resolução destes contenciosos, de forma a garantir a estabilidade continental. A organização, contudo, era fortemente baseada em princípios estritos de respeito à soberania de seus membros, o que, em conjunto com o contexto de Guerra Fria, contribuiu para que sua atuação e sucesso em intervenções militares e na estabilização do continente fossem bastante limitados. Com o final da Guerra Fria e a crise neoliberal da década de 1990, os países africanos passaram a se defrontar com novos desafios, como o colapso de alguns governos, a eclosão de novos (ou renovados) conflitos, e a securitização de questões continentais por atores extrarregionais. Nesse contexto, e como uma forma de melhor enfrentar a nova realidade, a OUA foi substituída, em 2002, pela UA, que, além de ser dotada de um escopo conceitual e institucional muito mais amplo que sua predecessora, representou uma mudança de paradigmas acerca do conceito de segurança no continente africano. O presente artigo tem por objetivo, portanto, analisar de que forma a substituição do princípio de não-intervenção pelo princípio de não-indiferença, e da própria OUA pela UA, afetam a questão securitária na África, com atenção especial às operações de paz conduzidas por atores africanos no continente.

 

Abstract: This paper seeks to identify and analyze the differences between peace operations conducted in the African continent by African countries within the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and those conducted by the African Union (AU). The independence of most African countries during the 1960s was followed by a series of conflicts on the continent, representing important threats to the nascent African states. Thus, in 1963, the OAU was created, aiming to prevent these disputes and to assist in their resolution, in order to guarantee the stability of the continent. Nevertheless, the organization relied strongly in strict principles of respect for the sovereignty of its members, which, in conjunction with the Cold War context, contributed to making its operations and success in military interventions and in the stabilization of the continent very limited. With the end of the Cold War period and the emergence of the neoliberal crisis of the 1990s, African countries faced new challenges, such as the collapse of some governments, the emergence of new (or renewed) conflicts and the securitization of continental issues by foreign actors. As a way to better face the new reality established, the OUA was replaced in 2002 by the AU, which, in addition to being endowed with a much broader conceptual and institutional scope than its predecessor, represented a shift of the African security concept paradigm. The aim of this article is therefore to examine how the replacement of the principle of non-intervention by the principle of non-indifference and of the replacement of the OUA itself by the AU affect the African security, with special attention to peace operations conducted by African actors on the continent.

Keywords: OAU; AU; Peace Operations.

 

 

Recebido em: dezembro/2017

Aprovado em: maio/2018

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Biografia do Autor

Nilton César Fernandes Cardoso, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Doutorando do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Estudos Estratégicos Internacionais da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEEI/UFGRS), com bolsa CAPES. Pesquisador assistente do Centro Brasileiro de Estudos Africanos (CEBRAFRICA) da UFRGS.
Guilherme Ziebell de Oliveira, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Professor de Relações Internacionais da PUCMG (Poços de Caldas). Doutorando do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Política da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGPOL/UFGRS).

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Publicado
2018-09-17
Seção
Artigos